7.01.00 Metalworking and Machining
7.02.00 Metal Mining and Refining
Metal machining is the process of converting metal blanks into finished components or parts. All metalworking operations involve the contact of two solids, a tool and the work-piece, to create the finished piece. The process involves high friction, high temperatures and high stresses, resulting in tool wear. It is the function of the lubricant, or metalworking fluid, to minimize or dissipate these effects. Metalworking fluids accomplish this by providing cooling, lubrication and corrosion resistance. Over time, cutting fluids can become contaminated by chips and fines, tramp oil, bacteria and dissolved salts. Therefore, monitoring the pH, water hardness and fluid concentration is essential in preventing failure of the fluid. Water evaporation should be monitored to ensure the coolant-to-water ratio is correctly maintained. The K-Patents Process Refractometer provides accurate and continuous measurements of the coolant-to-water ratio. Traditional lab sampling by titration is time consuming. Sampling can be minimized with in-line Process Refractometer control, especially when there are multiple stations. Furthermore, portable handheld refractometers are not ideal tools for metalworking fluids, as they give a fuzzy borderline resulting in inaccurate measurements. Too low a concentration allows bacterial growth, reduces cutting capacity resulting in longer machining time, poor surface finish, ineffective lubrication and debris to tool welding. Too high a concentration means excessive use of lubricant (costly) and grease contamination (difficult to remove).
Ref. 7.01.01 Metalworking and Machining (pdf)
Longwall mining is an underground coal extraction method, which removes large volumes of coal with minimum impact to the surface environment. It involves cutting parallel underground roadways to form “blocks